Use of an Additional Updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 Vaccine... (2024)

Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, MD1; Monica Godfrey, MPH1; Danielle L. Moulia, MPH1; Ruth Link-Gelles, PhD1; Christopher A. Taylor, PhD1; Kevin Chatham-Stephens, MD1; Oliver Brooks, MD2; Matthew F. Daley, MD3; Katherine E. Fleming-Dutra, MD1; Megan Wallace, DrPH1 (View author affiliations)

View suggested citation

Summary

What is already known about this topic?

In September 2023, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccination for all persons aged ≥6 months.

What is added by this report?

On February 28, 2024, ACIP recommended that all persons aged ≥65 years receive 1 additional dose of any updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccine (i.e., Moderna, Novavax, or Pfizer-BioNTech).

What are the implications for public health practice?

Adults aged ≥65 years should receive an additional dose of the updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccine to enhance their immunity and decrease the risk for severe COVID-19–associated illness.

Article Metrics

Altmetric:

Related Materials

  • Article PDF
  • Full Issue PDF

Abstract

COVID-19 remains an important public health threat, despite overall decreases in COVID-19–related severe disease since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates remain higher among adults aged ≥65 years relative to rates in younger adults, adolescents, and children; during October 2023–January 2024, 67% of all COVID-19–associated hospitalizations were among persons aged ≥65 years. On September 12, 2023, CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccination with a monovalent XBB.1.5-derived vaccine for all persons aged ≥6 months to protect against severe COVID-19–associated illness and death. Because SARS-CoV-2 continues to circulate throughout the year, and because of the increased risk for COVID-19–related severe illness in persons aged ≥65 years, the protection afforded by updated vaccines against JN.1 and other currently circulating variants, and the expected waning of vaccine-conferred protection against disease, on February 28, 2024, ACIP recommended all persons aged ≥65 years receive 1 additional dose of the updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccine. Implementation of these recommendations is expected to enhance immunity that might have waned and decrease the risk for severe COVID-19–associated outcomes, including death, among persons aged ≥65 years.

Introduction

Since June 2020, CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has convened 39 public meetings to review data and consider recommendations related to the use of COVID-19 vaccines (1). On September 12, 2023, ACIP recommended that all persons aged ≥6 months receive updated (2023–2024 Formula) monovalent, XBB.1.5 component (updated) COVID-19 vaccination to protect against severe COVID-19–associated illness and death (2).

As of February 3, 2024, approximately 6.7 million COVID-19–associated hospitalizations and 1.1 million COVID-19–associated deaths had occurred in the United States (3). Although the overall risk for COVID-19–associated hospitalization and death has decreased, severe illness related to COVID-19 continues to be a public health problem, especially among older adults. COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates remain higher among adults aged ≥65 years relative to rates among younger adults, adolescents, and children. During October 2023–January 2024, 67% of all COVID-19–associated hospitalizations were among persons aged ≥65 years (4). Further, COVID-19 death rates during January 1, 2023–January 31, 2024, were highest among adults aged ≥75 years, followed by adults aged 65–74 years (5,6). Whereas approximately 98%–99% of the U.S. population has measurable antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 from infection, vaccination, or both (hybrid immunity), adults aged ≥65 years are less likely to have immunity resulting from infection (including immunity from infection only or hybrid immunity), compared with adults aged 30–49 years and 50–64 years (7). In addition, immunosenescence, the age-related decline in the functioning of the immune system, results in a less complete immune response to novel antigens and a reduced ability to develop robust immunity after infections or vaccination (8). The pool of naive T-cells diminishes with age, and this insufficient naive T-cell pool affects the ability to generate neutralizing antibody responses and cytotoxic T-cells in response to SARS-CoV-2 (9).

Thus, adults aged ≥65 years are more likely than are younger adults, adolescents, and children to rely upon vaccination to increase immunity that might have waned and might need more frequent vaccine doses to maintain protection. Coverage with the updated COVID-19 vaccine among adults aged ≥65 years was 42% as of February 3, 2024 (10,11). Adults in this age group are more concerned about COVID-19 disease and had higher confidence in COVID-19 vaccine safety and vaccine importance than did younger adults (5). A nationally representative survey conducted during November 2023–January 2024 indicated that 68.4% of adults aged ≥65 years who had received an updated COVID-19 vaccine dose definitely would get another updated vaccine if it were recommended, 27.2% probably would or are unsure if they would get another updated vaccine, and 4.4% said they probably or definitely would not. COVID-19 vaccines are currently on the commercial market, but access-related barriers and disparities in vaccine coverage remain (5); in the absence of any recommendations for an additional dose, access to vaccine would be limited among persons unable to pay out of pocket for the vaccine.*

On February 28, 2024, ACIP voted to recommend that all persons aged ≥65 years receive 1 additional dose of any updated COVID-19 vaccine (i.e., Moderna, Novavax, or Pfizer-BioNTech). This recommendation was based on continuing SARS-CoV-2 circulation throughout the year, increased risk for severe illness attributable to COVID-19 in adults aged ≥65 years, protection provided by the updated vaccines against JN.1 and other currently circulating variants, the expected waning of SARS-CoV-2 immunity, and additional implementation considerations, including facilitating clear communication and equitable access to vaccine (5).

Top

Methods

In 2018, ACIP adopted the Evidence to Recommendations framework to guide the development of vaccine recommendations. Since November 2023, the ACIP COVID-19 work group met seven times to discuss the current policy question, i.e., whether adults aged ≥65 years should receive an additional dose of updated COVID-19 vaccine. Work group membership included ACIP voting members, representatives of ACIP ex officio and liaison organizations, and scientific consultants with expertise in public health, immunology, medical specialties, and immunization safety and effectiveness. Work group discussion topics included COVID-19 disease surveillance and epidemiology; COVID-19 vaccination coverage; and the safety, effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. This report summarizes the ACIP recommendation for an additional dose of the updated COVID-19 vaccine for persons aged ≥65 years and the rationale, including evidence reviewed by the work group and presented to ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/recs/grade/covid-19-additional-dose-adults-etr.html).

Top

Vaccine Effectiveness and Safety

No clinical trial immunogenicity data on an additional dose of the updated COVID-19 vaccines exist; however, the initial dose elicits a robust neutralizing antibody response and provides protection against JN.1 and other circulating variants (12,13). Early vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates demonstrate that updated COVID-19 vaccination provided increased protection against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19–associated emergency department and urgent care visits and hospitalization, compared with receipt of no updated vaccine dose (12,14). Although these early VE estimates show no substantial waning, based on data on effectiveness of original and bivalent COVID-19 vaccines, waning of vaccine-conferred immunity is expected. Effectiveness of an additional dose in older adults has been demonstrated for previously recommended additional original COVID-19 vaccine doses (15). Among adults aged ≥50 years who were eligible to receive a second original monovalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccine booster dose, VE against COVID-19–associated emergency department and urgent care encounters during the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2/BA.2.12.1 period ≥120 days after the third dose was 32% but increased to 66% ≥7 days after the fourth dose. VE against COVID-19–associated hospitalization ≥120 days after the third dose was 55% but increased to 80% ≥7 days after the fourth dose (15). In addition, in a large cohort of nursing home residents during circulation of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants, receipt of a second original monovalent mRNA COVID-19 booster dose ≤60 days earlier was 74% effective against severe COVID-19–related outcomes (including hospitalization or death) and 90% effective against death, compared with receipt of a single booster dose (16).

COVID-19 vaccines have a favorable safety profile as demonstrated by robust safety surveillance during 3 years of COVID-19 vaccine use (17). Anaphylactic reactions have rarely been reported after receipt of COVID-19 vaccines (18). A rare risk for myocarditis and pericarditis exists, predominately in males aged 12–39 years (19). No new safety concerns have been identified for the updated COVID-19 vaccine (5). Among adults aged ≥65 years, overall reactogenicity after COVID-19 vaccination is less frequent and less severe than among adolescents and younger adults (20). A statistical signal for ischemic stroke after Pfizer-BioNTech bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccine was detected in the CDC Vaccine Safety Datalink among persons aged ≥65 years, and information about this detection has been presented at previous ACIP meetings. Ongoing efforts to evaluate the signal have not identified any clear and consistent evidence of a safety concern for ischemic stroke with bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines either when given alone or when given simultaneously with influenza vaccines (21). A recent VE study indicated that the bivalent COVID-19 vaccine was 47% effective in preventing COVID-19 related thromboembolic events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, and deep vein thrombosis) among persons aged ≥65 years (22).

Top

Cost Effectiveness

ACIP considered whether an additional dose of updated COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥65 years is a reasonable and efficient allocation of resources. The societal incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine in persons aged ≥65 years was $255,122 per quality-adjusted life year saved for the base case estimate. ICER values were sensitive to probability of hospitalizations, costs, and seasonality assumptions. Estimates of ICER values that approximate cost effectiveness for those with higher risk for COVID-19–associated hospitalization, such as persons with underlying conditions or those aged ≥75 years, were more favorable (23).

Top

Recommendation for Use of an Additional Updated COVID-19 Vaccine Dose in Persons Aged ≥65 Years

On February 28, 2024, ACIP recommended that all persons aged ≥65 years receive 1 additional dose of any updated COVID-19 vaccine (i.e., Moderna, Novavax, or Pfizer-BioNTech). This additional dose should be administered ≥4 months after the previous dose of updated COVID-19 vaccine. For initial vaccination with Novavax COVID-19 vaccine, the 2-dose series should be completed before administration of the additional dose. Because Novavax COVID-19 vaccine is currently authorized under Emergency Use Authorization, the recommendation for the updated Novavax COVID-19 vaccine is an interim recommendation.

Top

Persons Aged ≥65 Years with Moderate or Severe Immunocompromise

Persons aged ≥65 years who are moderately or severely immunocompromised, have completed an initial series, and have received ≥1 updated COVID-19 vaccine dose should receive 1 additional updated COVID-19 vaccine dose ≥2 months after the last dose of updated vaccine. Further additional doses may be administered, guided by the clinical judgment of a health care provider and personal preference and circ*mstances. Any further additional doses should be administered ≥2 months after the last COVID-19 vaccine dose. Additional clinical considerations, including detailed schedules and tables by age for all age groups and vaccination history for those who are or are not moderately or severely immunocompromised, are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/clinical-considerations/covid-19-vaccines-us.html.

Top

Reporting Vaccine Adverse Events

Adverse events after vaccination should be reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). For licensed COVID-19 vaccines administered to persons aged ≥12 years, reporting is encouraged for any clinically significant adverse event even when whether the vaccine caused the event is uncertain, as well as for vaccination errors. For COVID-19 vaccines given under Emergency Use Authorization, vaccination providers are required to report certain adverse events to VAERS. Additional information is available at https://vaers.hhs.gov or by telephone at 1-800-822-7967.

Top

Acknowledgments

Karen Broder, Mary Chamberland, Demetre Daskalakis, Susan Goldstein, Aron Hall, Elisha Hall, Fiona Havers, Andrew Leidner, Pedro Moro, Sara Oliver, Ismael Ortega-Sanchez, Kadam Patel, Manisha Patel, Amanda Payne, Huong Pham, Jamison Pike, Lauren Roper, Sierra Scarbrough, Tom Shimabukuro, Benjamin Silk, John Su, Evelyn Twentyman, Eric Weintraub, David Wentworth, Melinda Wharton, Michael Whitaker, JoEllen Wolicki, Fangjun Zhou, CDC. Voting members of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (in addition to listed authors): Wilbur Chen, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Sybil Cineas, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Camille Kotton, Harvard Medical School; James Loehr, Cayuga Family Medicine; Sarah Long, Drexel University College of Medicine. Members of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices COVID-19 Vaccines Work Group: Beth P. Bell, University of Washington; Edward Belongia, Center for Clinical Epidemiology & Population Health, Marshfield Clinic Research Institute; Henry Bernstein, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell Cohen Children’s Medical Center; Uzo Chukwuma, Indian Health Service; Paul Cieslak, Christine Hahn, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists; Richard Dang, American Pharmacists Association; Jeffrey Duchin, Infectious Diseases Society of America; Kathy Edwards, Vanderbilt University Medical Center; Sandra Fryhofer, American Medical Association; Jason M. Goldman, American College of Physicians; Robert Hopkins, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; Michael Ison, Chris Roberts, National Institutes of Health; Lisa A. Jackson, Jennifer C. Nelson, Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute; Denise Jamieson, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; Jeffery Kelman, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; Kathy Kinlaw, Center for Ethics, Emory University; Alan Lam, U.S. Department of Defense; Grace M. Lee, Stanford University School of Medicine; Lucia Lee, Anuga Rastogi, Adam Spanier, Rachel Zhang, Food and Drug Administration; Valerie Marshall, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Dayna Bowen Matthew, George Washington University Law School; Preeti Mehrotra, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Kathleen Neuzil, Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine; Sean O’Leary, American Academy of Pediatrics; Christine Oshansky, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority; Stanley Perlman, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa; Marcus Plescia, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials; Rob Schechter, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases; Kenneth Schmader, American Geriatrics Society; Peter Szilagyi, University of California, Los Angeles; H. Keipp Talbot, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine; Jonathan Temte, American Academy of Family Physicians; Matthew Tunis, National Advisory Committee on Immunization Secretariat, Public Health Agency of Canada; Matt Zahn, National Association of County and City Health Officials; Nicola P. Klein, Kaiser Permanente Northern California; Cara B. Janusz, Lisa Prosser, Angela Rose, University of Michigan.

Top

Corresponding author: Lakshmi Panagiotakopoulos, media@cdc.gov.

Top

1National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC; 2Watts Healthcare Corporation, Los Angeles, California; 3Institute for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Colorado, Denver, Colorado.

Top

All authors have completed and submitted the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.

Top


* Section 2713(a)(2) of the Public Health Service Act, as added by section 1001 of the Affordable Care Act, implemented at 26 CFR 54.9815–2713(a)(1)(ii), 29 CFR 2590.715–2713(a)(1)(ii), and 45 CFR 147.130(a)(1)(ii). This requirement does not apply to grandfathered health plan coverage under section 1251 of the Affordable Care Act, implemented at 26 CFR 54.9815–1251, 29 CFR 2590.715–1272, and 45 CFR 147.140.

ACIP voted (11 to one with one abstention) to recommend that persons aged ≥65 years should receive an additional dose of updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccine.

Top

References

  1. CDC. Vaccine recommendations and guidelines of the ACIP: COVID-19 ACIP vaccine recommendations. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/covid-19.html
  2. Regan JJ, Moulia DL, Link-Gelles R, et al. Use of updated COVID-19 vaccines 2023–2024 formula for persons aged ≥6 months: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices—United States, September 2023. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2023;72:1140–6. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7242e1 PMID:37856366
  3. CDC. COVID data tracker: COVID-19 update for the United States. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2024. Accessed March 05, 2024. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker
  4. Taylor C. COVID-19–associated hospitalizations among adults–COVID-NET. Presented at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2024-02-28-29/02-COVID-Taylor-508.pdf
  5. Wallace M. Evidence to recommendations framework. Presented at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2024-02-28-29/06-COVID-Wallace-508.pdf
  6. CDC. COVID data tracker: COVID-19 monthly death rates per 100,000 population by age group, race and ethnicity, and sex. Atlanta, GA; US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2024. Accessed February 23, 2024. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#demographicsovertime
  7. CDC. COVID data tracker: 2022–2023 nationwide COVID-19 infection- and vaccination-induced antibody seroprevalence (blood donations). Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2024. Accessed March 14, 2024. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#nationwide-blood-donor-seroprevalence-2022
  8. de Candia P, Prattichizzo F, Garavelli S, Matarese G. T cells: warriors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Trends Immunol 2021;42:18–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.11.002 PMID:33277181
  9. Rey GU. Virology blog about viruses and viral disease: T cell responses to coronavirus infection are complicated. Mountain View, CA: Creative Commons; 2020. https://www.virology.ws/2020/11/05/t-cell-responses-to-coronavirus-infection-are-complicated/
  10. Chatham-Stephens K. COVID-19 vaccination coverage update. Presented at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2024-02-28-29/03-COVID-Chatham-Stevens-508.pdf
  11. CDC. For immunization managers: adult coverage and intent. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/coverage/covidvaxview/interactive/adult-coverage-vaccination.html
  12. Link-Gelles R, Ciesla AA, Mak J, et al. Early estimates of updated 2023–2024 (monovalent XBB.1.5) COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection attributable to co-circulating Omicron variants among immunocompetent adults—Increasing Community Access to Testing Program, United States, September 2023–January 2024. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2024;73:77–83. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7304a2 PMID:38300853
  13. Wang Q, Guo Y, Bowen A, et al. XBB.1.5 monovalent mRNA vaccine booster elicits robust neutralizing antibodies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. bioRxiv [Preprint posted online December 6, 2023]. https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.11.26.568730
  14. Link-Gelles R. COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness of updated (2023–2024) COVID-19 vaccines. Presented at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2024-02-28-29/04-COVID-Link-Gelles-508.pdf
  15. Link-Gelles R, Levy ME, Gaglani M, et al. Effectiveness of 2, 3, and 4 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine doses among immunocompetent adults during periods when SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2/BA.2.12.1 sublineages predominated—VISION network, 10 states, December 2021–June 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:931–9. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7129e1 PMID:35862287
  16. McConeghy KW, White EM, Blackman C, et al. Effectiveness of a second COVID-19 vaccine booster dose against infection, hospitalization, or death among nursing home residents—19 states, March 29–July 25, 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022;71:1235–8. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7139a2 PMID:36173757
  17. CDC. Vaccine safety: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/vaccines/Covid-19-vaccines.html#Articles
  18. Klein NP,Lewis N,Goddard K, et al. Surveillance for adverse events after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.JAMA 2021;326:1390–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.15072 PMID:34477808
  19. Markowitz LE, Hopkins RH Jr, Broder KR, et al. COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Technical (VaST) Work Group: enhancing vaccine safety monitoring during the pandemic. Vaccine 2024. Epub February 9, 2024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.12.059 PMID:38341293
  20. Food and Drug Administration. COVID-19 vaccines. Silver Spring, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration; 2024. Accessed April 2, 2024. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/covid-19-vaccines
  21. Shimabukuro TT. Update on COVID-19 and influenza vaccine safety. Presented at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, October 25, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2023-10-25-26/01-VaxSafety-Shimabukuro-508.pdf
  22. Payne AB, Novosad S, Wiegand RE, et al. Effectiveness of bivalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in preventing COVID-19–related thromboembolic events among Medicare enrollees aged ≥65 years and those with end stage renal disease—United States, September 2022–March 2023. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2024;73:16–23. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7301a4 PMID:38206877
  23. University of Michigan COVID-19 Vaccination Modeling Team. Economic analysis of an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Presented at the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices meeting, Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2024-02-28-29/05-COVID-Prosser-508.pdf

Top


Suggested citation for this article: Panagiotakopoulos L, Godfrey M, Moulia DL, et al. Use of an Additional Updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 Vaccine Dose for Adults Aged ≥65 Years: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2024. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2024;73:377–381. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7316a4.

MMWR and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report are service marks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsem*nt by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsem*nt of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.

All HTML versions of MMWR articles are generated from final proofs through an automated process. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users are referred to the electronic PDF version (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr) and/or the original MMWR paper copy for printable versions of official text, figures, and tables.

Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to mmwrq@cdc.gov.

Use of an Additional Updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 Vaccine... (2024)

FAQs

Use of an Additional Updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 Vaccine...? ›

On September 12, 2023, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended updated (2023–2024 Formula) COVID-19 vaccination with a monovalent XBB. 1.5-derived vaccine for all persons aged ≥6 months to protect against severe COVID-19–associated illness and death.

What are the CDC recommendations for the COVID vaccine 2023 2024? ›

CDC recommends the 2023–2024 updated COVID-19 vaccines—Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, or Novavax—to protect against serious illness from COVID-19. Everyone aged 5 years and older ‡ should get 1 dose of an updated COVID-19 vaccine to protect against serious illness from COVID-19.

How often should you get the bivalent booster? ›

When should I receive a booster dose? Everyone 6 months and older should receive a bivalent booster dose at least two months following their last monovalent dose.

How effective is the COVID vaccine in 2023? ›

During September 2023–January 2024, in two multisite VE networks, updated 2023–2024 COVID-19 vaccination provided significant protection against COVID-19–associated ED/UC encounters and hospitalization among immunocompetent adults, compared with not receiving an updated vaccine.

What are the side effects of the COVID booster 2024? ›

You could experience soreness at the injection site, fatigue, headache, body aches, and fever.

Is the COVID vaccine no longer authorized? ›

As part of today's actions, the bivalent Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines are no longer authorized for use in the United States.

Is the updated COVID vaccine safe? ›

How safe is the updated COVID vaccine? COVID vaccines are safe and effective, according to the CDC. The safety of COVID vaccines has been rigorously monitored and evaluated since their emergency use authorization (EUA) in December 2020.

How effective is the long term COVID vaccine? ›

COVID-19 vaccine efficacy or effectiveness against severe disease remained high, although it did decrease somewhat by 6 months after full vaccination. By contrast, vaccine efficacy or effectiveness against infection and symptomatic disease decreased approximately 20–30 percentage points by 6 months.

What is the impact factor of vaccine in 2023? ›

2023—another great year in the history of Vaccines, brightened by a major accomplishment! With a new impact factor of 7.8 we have reached the first league! Let us continue like this and thanks to our excellent team, all the authors, the readers, and all the supporters of Vaccines for this collective success!

How long does the new COVID vaccine take to be effective? ›

Its effectiveness increases over the next two weeks; however, it doesn't take two weeks to start protecting you from COVID-19 because your first shot(s) already built up some immunity.

How long does a vaccine stay in your body? ›

How long do spike proteins last in the body? The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) estimates that the spike proteins that were generated by COVID-19 vaccines last up to a few weeks, like other proteins made by the body.

How long does it take for immunity after a COVID booster? ›

Your body's immune response kicks in almost immediately after a booster dose. It may take around two weeks to reach maximum protection.

Is there a new COVID variant? ›

"No evidence" new COVID variant LB.1 causes more severe disease, CDC says. There are no signs so far that the new LB.1 variant is causing more severe disease in COVID-19 patients, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says, as infections have begun to accelerate in this summer's wave around the country.

Do i need to be fully vaccinated to enter the us 2023? ›

You do not need to show proof of being fully vaccinated against COVID-19 or take a COVID-19 test to enter the U.S. This applies to U.S. citizens and non-citizens.

What are COVID symptoms in 2024? ›

Symptoms of COVID-19

a loss or change to your sense of smell or taste. shortness of breath. feeling tired or exhausted. an aching body.

What is the incubation period of the COVID-19 virus? ›

People with COVID-19 have reported a wide range of symptoms ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. Anyone can have mild to severe symptoms.

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Duncan Muller

Last Updated:

Views: 6117

Rating: 4.9 / 5 (79 voted)

Reviews: 94% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Duncan Muller

Birthday: 1997-01-13

Address: Apt. 505 914 Phillip Crossroad, O'Konborough, NV 62411

Phone: +8555305800947

Job: Construction Agent

Hobby: Shopping, Table tennis, Snowboarding, Rafting, Motor sports, Homebrewing, Taxidermy

Introduction: My name is Duncan Muller, I am a enchanting, good, gentle, modern, tasty, nice, elegant person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.